Chapter - 1 - Shodhganga
General introduction and historical overview… ... that the first synthetic liquid crystal, p-azoxyanisole, was produced by ... to be liquid crystal properties in nerve myelin in the 1850s  and also in .... Many compounds are observed to form more than one type of smectic phase. ...... Research Objective and Outline of Thesis.
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Study on Application of UV-Processed Molecular Alignment in
Photoalignment technique in liquid crystal devices (LCDs) fabrication ... History of Liquid Crystals. 1 ..... example, reported in 1850 that stearin melted from a solid to a cloudy liquid at 52°C, ... standard equipment in every liquid crystal research laboratory. ... He observed, as W. Heintz did with stearin 38 years before, that the ...
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First-principles study of density, viscosity, and diffusion coefficients
4500–5000 K, the diffusion coefficient of liquid MgSiO3 is 2–3 В 10. А5 cm 2/s and the ... 2000] and melt/crystal density inversions could greatly modify the structure and cooling history of such an ocean ... JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112 ... MgO liquids were also recently reported [Stixrude and. Karki ...
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HOP CONFERENCE Table of Contents Digest and Copyright
invited and indeed a wide variety of concise reports will be presented orally and in the ... The idea was inspired by the success in 2010 of the first European .... historical collection of the Vienna Institute for Radium Research. Thus ...... the first time observed the mesophase (later called liquid crystals) between solid and liq-.
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Page 1 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 96, NO
Large convective velocities in the magma ocean would prohibit crystal-liquid ... decompression of mantle rocks is based on the observation that ... have begun to melt between 10 GPa, 1850°C (10%) and 20 .... liquid and crystal compositions were reported, a komatiitic ..... Thus, when garnet-majorite first crystallizes in the.
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How a Scientiﬁc Discovery Is Made: A Case History
Physics and professor oflhe history of science at .... pensive coolant liquid nitrogen. ... with isolated observations, often tran— .... Discovery of the first high- temperature superconductor, barium—doped lan- .... By analogy, the manner in which a crystal system exhibits a set of symme- .... in research reports: x-ray powder dif-.
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Download (2242Kb) - UTAR Institutional Repository - Universiti
First of all, I would like to express my gratitude towards the Faculty of. Science ... and wealth of knowledge from synthesis and liquid crystals to trivial facts. Apart ... these research findings for publishing in any form, if I did not prepare it within ..... Heintz, for example, reported in 1850 that stearin melted from a solid to a cloudy.
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Effect of Climate Change on Built Heritage - WTA
Mar 11, 2010 ... very recently even IPCC reports have come under fire because of ... Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research / Institute of History, ... In Western Europe, climate observations from historical documents ... between 1750 and 1850. ... the first known instrument to determine air temperature and started to ...
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Download PDF - Springer
and columnar mesophases have all been observed, as well as, in a few cases, the more .... liquid crystals can be traced back as far as the 1850s with Heintz's work on ... being the beginning of the systematic research into metal-containing liquid .... Takahashi also recently reported the first mesomorphic gold(I) carbene.
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Survey of the Early History of Liquid Crystals
research, it might bc helpful to have a first glance at the previous history, and then to ... the development during the next 20 years shall be reported. At that ... year as the beginning of thermotropic liquid crystal research. For ... been already observed around the year 1850. It is well ... Heintz had already observed the phenom-.
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This article - The Electrochemical Society
for us to live, history pages are littered with the names, some of ... marked the first time that a continuous electric current was .... who observed the magnetic effect ..... Lippmann was a research advisor to Marie Curie and .... 1893, Edward Weston (1850-1936) ..... interfacial electrochemistry, single crystal electrodes, and low.
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fulltext - DiVA
research all since the discovery of the first high-М materials in 1986. .... 83, 1850 ( 1999). ... Vortex liquid resistivity in disordered YBa2Cu3O7 Ж single crystals ..... Superconductivity was first observed in Hg (М = 4 2 K) as a sudden disap- ... 1920s and 1930s, reports of new superconducting alloys and compounds started to.
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Vorlander's wheel - Taylor & Francis Online
number of liquid crystals reported by VorlaČnder, and. Another phrase ... the drop in productivity during the period of the First. What follows ... Historical background . Although the ... own ®eld of research. Abderhalden ... 1850s with the observation of birefringent textures in nerve myelin by Virchow  and to Heintz's work on.
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Composition of the Earth's inner core from high - James Badro's
May 10, 2010 ... Article history: Received ... account for the observed density difference between the core and pure ... measurements are reported in the next section, while the obtained ... 1850°C at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, using a ... to 1st neighbor interaction) to the phonon dispersion (Antonangeli et.
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(Tuesday, September 1st) - ECNS -2015 - Universidad de Zaragoza
Sep 1, 2015 ... Tue, September 1st .... Jeffrey Lynn, NIST Center for Neutron Research, USA. 13: 15 (O6) Status of the ... of its Historical and Artistic Heritage and Analysis of its ... 16:30 (O1) MAGiC: a polarized single crystal magnetism ... (O4) Structure of Liquid/Liquid interface in Solvent ..... magnetic order was reported.
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Influence of Cellulose Ethers on the Kinetics of Early Portland
many sleepless nights at the Material Research Beamline. I'm very grateful for the help of ... 5.2.5 Synchrotron XRD with Liquid Injection. 73 ... The following phase reactions could be observed within the first 24 hours of Portland cement hydration: 1. tri-calcium ..... The history of cellulose ether started with military application.
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spg mitteilungen communications de la ssp - Schweizerische
Nov 7, 2015 ... History of Physics (14): Recollections of Max Born. 38. Jost Bürgis ... much about who or what comes first, they are simple lists of great ... of high-quality single crystals ... ceptual basis for theoretical and experimental research explor- .... From that observation follows the traditional view ... spin- liquid state.
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Vacuum Science & Technology Time Line, 1500 - vacuumcursus.nl
invents liquid-in-glass ... Historical events ... first observation of ... 1850. Edison improves the. Sprengel-Geissler recycling mercury pump. 1879 ... reports to the .... for crystal structure derived .... Heintz & Kauffman .... National Research Corp.
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Here - 3 Rivers 2nd Nature
The secondary research areas are: ... we introduce activities that include observation of a sub-watershed, testing local ... internet. http://3r2n.cfa.cmu.edu/ Year4/reports/aquatic/stream/index.htm ... Throughout the city's history, the Allegheny, Monongahela, and ... At first, commercial use was limited by fluctuating water levels.
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Dynamics of excited state electron transfer at a liquid - CiteSeerX
Jun 23, 2012 ... Article history: ... vibrational sum frequency generation has been used for the first time to ... ground state electron donor in the bulk liquid [9–13]. ... In the work reported here the focus is the dynamics of excited ... quartz crystal interface was recorded as a reference for normaliza- .... from 1550 to 1850 cmÀ1.
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