Effective Argumentation: Premises and Conclusions
What is the error in logic that lets one or more assertions become ... we must look at the basic building blocks of any logical argument: premises ... The most important part of any premise is that your audience will accept it as true. If your audience rejects even one of your premises, they will likely also reject your conclusion, ...
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Developing Your Thesis/Claim
that says, "This paper will argue X by asserting A, B, and C." Such a thesis would likely be ... Despite the differences from discipline to discipline, a good thesis will generally have the ... As we've said, not every piece of writing sets out to make a claim. ... Does my introductory paragraph define terms important to my thesis?
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Toulmin Model of Argument
He used these terms to describe the items. ... Warrants: The general, hypothetical (and often implicit) logical statements that serve as bridges ... Toulmin's diagram of arguments typically looks something like this example: ... "Claim with qualifiers" is similar to the structure of a thesis in the form of an ... asserted as absolutes.
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Writing an Argument (PDF 105KB)
The term 'argument' is used in everyday language to describe a dispute or disagreement between two or more people. However ... This means we need to present a well-reasoned argument. ... an assertion or claim (i.e. Wearing a seatbelt reduces the risk of injury) ... Make sure your essay has a good, clear, logical structure:.
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LOGIC AND LEGAL REASONING: A GUIDE FOR LAW STUDENTS
usually states a general rule. In legal arguments, this is generally a statement of law. A minor premise makes a factual assertion about a particular person or thing or a group of ... In other words, a syllogism is valid if, given the truth of its premises, ..... conclusion if we also assume that the people who said they were the ...
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Chapter Five - Evaluating Arguments
Logic is also often divided into two types, formal and informal. ... informal method of argument evaluation, but we will begin this chapter with a brief introduction to the ... or set of statements (the premises) and asserts that some other statement follows ... What makes the argument deductive is the claim that the conclusion ...
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The Slippery Slope Argument - EMBL
While there's nothing ethically wrong itself about cloning pets, if we pass a law ... A causal slippery slope argument will usually have the following form. ... fallacious when in fact there is no reason to think the causal claim asserted to hold .... Now, the claim of a logical slope is also sometimes used as a basis for making a.
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Argumentation and Critical Decision Making - Indiana University
KEY TERMS adherence decision maker claim factual claim value claim .... people' s critical decisions are the products of argumentation, we speak of ... good argument, they usually must adapt to those standards because of their standing ..... more important elements: toleration of uncertainty, internal dialogue, dialectic,.
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Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Logic
mathematics. Also, in saying that logic is the science of reasoning, we do not mean .... words that are commonly used to mark conclusions of arguments, including. 'consequently' ... fire, we may be wrong in asserting that there is a fire. ... Inductive reasoning is important to science, but so is deductive reasoning, which is the ...
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Logic: A Brief Introduction - Stetson University
Suppose, however, that thinking is in important respects more like playing a piano .... If we are to use the term “logic” correctly, however, we must avoid a common confusion. ... term is defined as the content of an assertion that is either true or false. .... Arguments are usually divided into two primary kinds: inductive arguments ...
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Claims and Reasons 1 Argument Mapping 2
we apply these basic rules to real arguments, as we'll see. Claims. The basic ... Notice how these too, like claims, are relatively straightforward statements that are also .... Another technique is to add indicator words that are usually used to ... The difference between reasons and explanations is important, because we often ...
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What Is Assertion? - John MacFarlane
If we use the term “proposition” for the content of an assertion ... How can we distinguish between what is asserted and what is merely .... that Jane has not stopped beating her husband, one does not also assert ...... Of course, this can't be an argument against the claim that to assert that p .... Journal of Philosophical Logic,.
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Chapter 2 Propositional Logic - Logic in Action
power, while we also present some backgrounds in computation and .... false consequence follows, and then cast doubt on the original assertion. ... Clearly, the valid second argument would also be valid in the .... key logical operator words: .... tween logical languages and natural language have become important in ...
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Using the Toulmin Model
... we expect col- lege freshmen to produce a logical argumentative paper before they ... of argumentation that helps students not only to develop ideas but also to organize them. ... Asserting the claim that “Ann's bedroom is on fire,” we note ... Transitional words, set off by commas in the ... BACKING: Because, fires generally.
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Methods of Proofs
LOGICAL ARGUMENTS AND FORMAL PROOFS. 57 ... Here are a few important ... Once we have the undefined terms and axioms for a mathematical system, we can ... axioms, definitions, previously proven assertions, and the rules of inference, which ... We could also determine if the argument is valid by checking if the ...
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Tips on Writing a Philosophy Paper - Arizona State University
A thesis statement is that sentence or two that asserts your position on a given issue, specifically, the position ... Of course, it's also important not to go too far in ... and argue that act-utilitarianism does better than all the others in terms of our .... The key to having your essay follow a logical structure is to make an outline before.
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writing literary arguments - Cengage Learning
to present your own ideas and supply convincing support while also pointing out ... You should always define the key terms you use in your argument. ... argument is logical and that your evidence is solid. ... Many literary arguments are built on assertions— statements made about a de- .... is an important symbol in the play.
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14 Predicate Logic - Stanford InfoLab
We can now write our hypotheses in terms of the predicates as follows: 1. ... principle, we must allow any sort of value for a constant, we shall usually imagine ... 1 Predicate logic also allows arguments that are more complicated expressions than .... When we “assert” an expression, we mean that its value is TRUE no matter.
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Tips on Writing a Philosophy Paper - American University
A thesis statement is that sentence or two that asserts your position on a given issue, specifically, the ... Of course, it's also important not to go too far in .... term, we ought not to conclude that the difficulties involved in determining whether or not a ... core of your paper's argument, and it should follow a clear logical pattern.
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Slippery Slope Arguments and Legal Reasoning - Berkeley Law
I would also like to thank Professor Jan Vetter for helpful comments on an earlier ... those cases in which a judge thinks that the claims of such arguments do ... thinly-veiled assertion that we can draw no rationally defensible line ...... Philosophers tend to use terms such as "logical slippery slope arguments" to refer to what.
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