Altruism in insect societies and beyond: voluntary - Santa Fe Institute
Altruism: an action that, on average, decreases the lifetime direct fitness of an actor and ... selection acting on individuals in social groups with coercion .
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Altruism Exchanges and the Kidney Shortage - Duke Law
Nov 11, 2014 ... For example, donors are allowed to direct that ... Julia D. Mahoney, Altruism, Markets, and Organ Procurement, 72 LAW & CONTEMP. PROBS.
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endogenous morality - College of Social Sciences and Public Policy
moral beliefs evolve, at least in part, to reduce such costs. .... that it is difficult (i.e., costly) for humans to pretend beliefs that are not actually adopted, so if acting as if ... voluntary cooperation requires trust, of course, so as explained below, rules that .... Additional incentives for cooperation and for short-term altruistic behavior ...
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a proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism - Emory University
The study of reciprocal altruism, or the exchange of goods and services be- tween individuals, requires attention to both evolutionary explanations and proximate ... define cooperation as the voluntary acting together of two or more individuals .... of a defecting partner lower and reciprocity more viable than in situations.
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Introduction to the Economics of Altruism, Giving - Ohio University
Altruism and democracy: Altruistic joint giving and its public implementation. 5. ... 9.3.2 Actors of the political and public system ..... people or to the poor satisfies basic needs and tends to reduce inequality thanks to a free .... direct agreement between themselves, but, generally, their number precludes this solution and,.
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Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids - BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jan 20, 2010 ... Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward ... actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial .... benefit to an aphid is required to establish whether cor- ..... voluntary or enforced?. Trends ...
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Altruism and Mutual Advantage - Department of Politics, New York
as acting to beneﬁt another or others at net cost to oneself. Any interac- ... I wish to explore the ﬁt of altruism with mutual advantage not only in theories but also .... Smith. it entails either coercion (Hobbes, Smith) or moral restraint. (Smith ..... assistance that requires voluntary participation but in which the target population will ...
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Altruism: A Review of Recent Theory and Research - Annual Reviews
are more compatible with the view that true altruism-acting with the goal of benefitting ... Research in social psychology during the 80's had a decreased emphasis on .... (a) must benefit another person, (b) must be performed voluntarily, (c) must ... requiring less rational deliberation and self-persuasion, less active cultivation.
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Lecture 12. Female rearing & Synthesis (Slides) - University of Sussex
evolution or “extreme altruism”. Objectives. 1. ... But recognizing full sisters would require a system of “self referent phenotype ... Theory also shows that nepotism, if it occurs, will reduce .... Actions costly to actor and beneficial to recipient .... into dwarf queens, larvae evade coercion by adult workers. ... Voluntary Altruism.
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Altruism in Networks
embedded in a fixed, weighted network and care about their direct friends. .... We first show that altruistic networks decrease inequality, in the sense of second- ...... However, reaching this distribution on an arbitrary network typically requires ..... by acting as competitors for direct friends' gifts? ... A Model of Coerced Altruism.
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consider the case of true altruism and the conditions required for the spread of altruistic ... Mutual defection is a much lower payoff than mutual cooperation, but ... The entire justice system is based on this system of subtle coercion. .... Direct evidence ...... behavior is favored, as any interaction brings the actor a net gain, and.
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A Moderate Compromise-Chapter 6 - The International Economics
Smith is arguing that the economic system provides for our wants and needs ... achieved because of altruistic behavior. ... influence government policies to favor their interests, and exploit the lower skilled ... From the idea of voluntary exchange comes the notion that free market ..... causes direct harm to someone else.
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Why Cooperate? - Overseas Development Institute
Why we should choose to cooperate voluntarily and not be forced into it. 2. ... Cooperation is defined as a group of individuals acting together to a common end. ... A central authority is needed to coordinate and enforce coerced cooperation. ..... are more altruistic than they 'should' be because of confusion or kindness.
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Neuroeconomics of Charitable Giving and Philanthropy
with motives indicate evidence of both Pure Altruism ... altruistic motives. More direct ways of assessing motives, ... goods, we turn to the issue of voluntary contributions .... about fairness and coercion. Third ... modern economies have much lower rates of giving. .... tions that don't require altruistic preferences of any sort.
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Full Text (PDF)
Jan 7, 2014 ... is based on the use of threats that deter individuals from acting selfishly in the ... requires an experimental approach to simulate reproductive trans- ... suggest that efficient policing can, over evolutionary time, reduce ..... Ratnieks FLW, Wenseleers T (2008) Altruism in insect societies and beyond: Voluntary.
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Taking Preferences Seriously - Princeton University
direct comparison with constructivist approaches and John Mearsheimer invited ... an ideology to contrast its purported altruism (''idealism,'' ''legalism,'' .... ual societal demands and the willingness to employ coercion in pursuit of them are ... In the liberal conception of domestic politics, the state is not an actor but a repre-.
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EMBRACING THE COMMODIFICATION OF HUMAN ORGANS
Donation While Preserving Altruistic Meaning” elucidates the moral ... organs for transplantation, including direct financial payments and other ... practice requires that we view these decidedly useful body parts as ... parties transact voluntarily, that deception or other forms of coercion are not ...... lives and reduce suffering.
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A review of informal volunteerism in emergencies and disasters
Unsolicited donations may be inappropriate or unnecessary and require the ... Professionals and volunteers with official agencies tend to be viewed as legitimate actors, ... be entirely voluntary and entail no coercion; involve no reward or even personal .... Such volunteerism is considered altruistic due to volunteers' genuine ...
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Download (438Kb) - ePrints Soton - University of Southampton
Altruistic acts involve the actor donating fitness to beneficiaries at net cost to. 18 ... Both behaviours may have the same direct net-cost transferral of fitness from .... Competition amongst kin is then predicted to reduce selection for altruistic .... is PD, because that would require P > 0 > R. Figure 2(b) shows the origin in HG for ...
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Challenging the Moral Status of Blood Donation | SpringerLink
Sep 15, 2012 ... Research is required to evaluate the potential effects on donation of a .... Voluntary blood donors donate blood for altruistic reasons and receive no ... pressure and coercion were uppermost in the thoughts of either the writers or ..... drawn lower, at least under blood donation, and probably a lot lower than ...
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