Characteristics and controls of variability in soil moisture and
Apr 17, 2015 ... Our aim was to assess the controls, types and implications of ... near-stream locations have higher water tables and showed soil ... The high variability of soil water and groundwater has far- ... low that scale, model fluxes will differ from point-scale .... slope “hollows” had specific discharge an order of magni-.
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TCI Temperature Control Instrument Mechatronics Department Civil
Aim: What is specific heat? Subject: Earth Science. Topic: Climate. Subtopic: Properties of water. Time: ... (Expected answer: Metals tend to heat up much more quickly that water does.) ... Lab: Specific Heat of Land and Water ... To determine the differences between the specific heats of water and some other earth materials.
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Evaluating land surface model simulations of European summertime
the simulation of soil moisture and its control on summertime water and energy fluxes in land ... kg kg−1. Ca specific heat capacity of air at constant pressure.
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A model for numerical simulating of evaporation from bare saline soil
one-dimensional equations were solved using fully implicit finite difference ... Evaporation from the soil surface is controlled by atmo- ... pling of soil water flow and heat transport in porous media. ... such conditions, salt concentration gradients can become a .... heat of vaporization of water, c t is the specific heat of liquid.
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Estimation of surface heat flux and an index of soil moisture using
the surface control over latent heat flux match those values based on ... microwave spectral regions, near-surface soil water may be inferred ... tion is proportional to the difference between saturated spe- cific humidity at ground temperature and the air specific hu- .... index that will be defined more precisely later) will be esti-.
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Effects of Pile Burning in the LTB on Soil and Water Quality
Pile burning effects on downslope water chemistry. 52. IV. ... Our aim was to provide scientifically credible results that would inform land ... The soil heat pulse did not increase significantly for piles .... The specific objectives were to: ..... The response of soils to temperature extremes is fairly well established in controlled.
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CHAPTER - 2
In this chapter, we will review the various aspects of climate and the methods of its .... Wind is the movement of air due to a difference in atmospheric pressure, caused by differential heating of land and water mass on the earth's surface by solar ..... criteria for design in the cold and cloudy region aim at resisting heat loss by ...
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Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance—A review
Crop production capacity can be evaluated by estimating potential yield and .... when grown with water and nutrients non-limiting and biotic stress effectively controlled ... The yield gap (Yg) is the difference between Yp (irrigated crops), or Yw ..... More detailed information on actual farmers' yields for specific locations can be ...
[ 1-s2.0-S037842901200295X-main.pdf?_tid=670cbb18-28be-11e4-98b4-00000aacb361&acdnat=1408576076_70475b886a43f971fae1bb991c19c124 - Read/Download File
Estimating air surface temperature in Portugal using MODIS LST data
Jun 6, 2012 ... factors that control the energy balance of the land–atmosphere system. Solar radiation is the main ... The use of remote sensing data can greatly improve the estimation .... In this study we estimate weekly Tair and aim at describ- ..... regarding their specific heat, transparency and density, water bodies.
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Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025
concepts, capabilities, and technologies the United States will require to remain ..... ionosphere and near space for space control and communications dominance. .... military based on specific required capabilities such as those listed in table 1, table 1 is .... surrounding air heats up, parcels of air will rise and the water vapor ...
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Energy and carbon dioxide flux densities above and below a tem
The aim of the work was to examine ... esses that control the fluxes of mass and energy over these disparate ... caution should be exercised when scaling carbon fluxes to ... water vapor, CO2 and heat fluxes at the forest floor to be a .... These values are near the upper limit for soil water ..... Cp is the specific heat of dry air).
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WHO Water Quality Monitoring.pdf - World Health Organization
Water Quality Monitoring - A Practical Guide to the Design and .... many developing countries and for specific projects and studies world-wide. Material .... management, which aims to control the physical, chemical and biological ... particular hydrological measurements and water characteristics required will differ from one.
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Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface - MDPI
Mar 4, 2014 ... among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON), the ... sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean ... that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an ..... Annually-averaged differences in near-surface temperature (°C): (a) .... for a specific region.
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A Heat Transfer Textbook, 4th edition - MIT
methods, equations, and data described in this book, but they do not guarantee them for .... Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat exchanger .
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chapter 11 measurement of soil moisture - WMO
Soil moisture determinations measure either the soil water content or the soil water ... soil locations indicates a tendency for water flow, from high to low potential. .... Soil water potential measurement can be performed by several indirect ..... components differ in heat capacities, so diurnal soil temperature fluctuations can ...
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resources to create electricity nor do they pollute the air, land, or water, as ... Dams are often in remote locations and power must be transmitted over ... To find the theoretical horsepower (the measure of mechanical energy) from a specific site, this .... Asolar energy,” we usually think of heat from the sun=s rays which can be.
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Effects of excess ground ice on projections of - IOPscience
Dec 8, 2014 ... can estimate spatially explicit gridcell mean surface subsidence with values ranging up to 0.5 m by 2100 ... large-scale degradation of near surface permafrost may occur ... capture small scale differences in altitude (Fiddes et al 2013), terrain .... specific heat of soil, ice, and excess ice water at layer i. (J kg.
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Chapter 2 (The role of soil organic matter in ecosystems and society)
1 Soil organic carbon percentages are converted to specific weight in tonnes C/ ha .... the rate of decomposition, soil organic matter will increase. ... 3). These may, however, differ from the pools used for modelling purposes (Figure 2) .... Soil water holding capacity is controlled primarily by the soil texture, structure and the.
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Turbulent Heat Fluxes above a Suburban Reservoir: A Case Study
Jul 1, 2015 ... ter surface and the overlying near-surface atmosphere. ... The exchange processes were controlled especially by the air–water temperature difference (for sensible heat. Denotes Open .... where rw is the density of water, cpw is the specific heat of ... these results, we can divide the dataset into a land and.
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Energy Balance and Evapotranspiration in a High Mountain Area
Since the albedo and the longwave radiation budget do not differ significantly, net .... Here, Cp denotes the specific heat at constant pressure,. L the latent heat of ...
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