Page 1 ... Reaction Mass Efficiency ... E Factor/Process Mass Intensity ... PMI is the ratio of kg of total amount of incoming materials/kg product. ... Raw Materials are all materials including water that are used directly in the process ... reclaimed or reused materials may be accounted for in this calculation ... Note: Include water.
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Simplified Application of Material Efficiency - ACS Publications
Aug 26, 2015 ... efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. ... green chemistry.1−4 Of the several types of metrics proposed in .... process mass intensity (PMI) are given by eqs 3, 4, and 5. = = +. +. + ... masses of all input materials used and mass of product collected.
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Lessons learned through measuring green chemistry performance
Raw Materials are all materials including water that are used ... Process Mass Intensity Metric (PMI) ... <1 to 5. Bulk Chemicals ca. 0.1. Oil Refining. E-factor. Industry. Process Mass Intensity ... This is something we hope to include in the future. ... Calculated median of the total material use (kg Material Use/ kg API) for each.
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Using Process Mass Intensity (PMI) to Guide Process - Confex
To demonstrate ways in which the metric, Process Mass Intensity (PMI), may be used to: ... Methodology applied to coupling step in the synthesis of an API in ... 1. Reduce raw material usage. ▻ determine contributions of each unit operation to ...
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Using Metrics to Drive Innovations in Green Chemistry and
Page 1 ... Are “easily” obtained (lowest cost). – Generally don't require ... Inappropriate engineering or process controls. • Human ... Process Mass Intensity (PMI). Step 1: A + B ... Includes all materials used in synthesis (i.e., Reagents, solvents ...
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Download Sample pages 2 PDF - Springer
or a percentage) generated by a chemical reaction from a given reactant. A more ... been first defined by Trost in 1991  as “the ability of a chemical process to .... Yet another approach makes use of the Process Mass Intensity (PMI, the .... relative to the mass of all non-benign materials used in its synthesis, according to .
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The E Factor and Process Mass Intensity - Springer
throughout the chemical industry, the E factor and PMI are calculated for numerous ... catalysis which include catalyst recycling and simple product isolation and purifi- ..... Scheme 3.6 TS-1 catalyzed process for the synthesis of caprolactam ..... Process mass intensity is defined as the “total mass of materials used to produce ...
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Full-Text PDF - MDPI
May 16, 2016 ... Less hazardous chemical synthesis ... Figure 1. The twelve principles of Green Chemistry . ... Designers need to strive to ensure that all materials and energy inputs and .... reaction efficiency, effective mass yield, process mass intensity, and ..... which include calculations of the energy used to perform the ...
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Towards a holistic approach to metrics for the 21st century
Mar 27, 2015 ... ify all of the available green metrics in the literature, as well as those currently used by the EFPIA partners (see ESI Appendix. 1†). ... of relevant issues regarding the synthesis of chemical pro- ducts. .... these calculations from quantifiable analysis. .... a single step or process mass intensity (PMI) for an entire.
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Solvents and sustainable chemistry
May 2, 2015 ... 1. Introduction. In 1987, the United Nations defined sustainable develop- .... which does not include environmentally benign compounds in the calculation of the ... html) advocated Process Mass Intensity (PMI; the ratio of the total ... the yield of the product achieved, all the materials used in the synthesis, ...
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Introduction to Green Chemistry, Organic Synthesis and
1 Introduction to Green Chemistry, Organic Synthesis and Pharmaceuticals .... account and includes reagents, solvent losses, process aids, and, in principle, even ... simply, it is the total mass of raw materials minus the total mass of product , all ... Process Mass Intensity ( PMI )  , defined as the total mass used in a process.
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View PDF Version - RSC Publishing - Royal Society of Chemistry
Apr 13, 2015 ... these, Process Mass Intensity (PMI) was selected by the American Chemical ... stock materials or wastes produced. ... Zürich used mass and energy data from the petrochemical pro- .... 1 System boundaries of the study: cradle-to-synthesis LCA. ..... which includes all the mass flows involved in each process.
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more than a simple green chemistry advance - RSC Publishing
Nov 9, 2015 ... reduction of metric such as PMI, reduction of cost, reduction of cycle time, milder reaction ... virtues approached 50% in favor of surfactant technology, all of which .... synthesis. .... materials that are used directly in the chemistry of synthesiz- ... 1 Comparison of evolution of the Process Mass Intensity (PMI): (a).
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Reaction Chemistry & Engineering - RSC Publishing - Royal Society
Nov 23, 2015 ... methods of synthesis used in pharmaceutical and speciality .... cost comparison of the existing batch process with the new ... manufacture of all material inputs into the technology ... Scheme 1 Buchwald–Hartwig amination reaction studied in this ..... tion and the resulting process mass intensity (PMI) (15.4.
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Impact of supercritical extraction on solid fuel wood pellet properties
of waste treatment (CWT) and cost of raw materials (CRM). The equation used to ... the solute that needs to be extracted, and includes all of the pre-processing steps (e.g. communition ... The CO2 mass used per hour is 2875.1 kg, Cp at 55 oC is 0.874 kJ kg-1 k-1 and ∆T is 51 oC. .... respectively. Process Mass Intensity ( PMI) ...
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Environmental sustainability - AstraZeneca
our key material issues. .... 2 Overall value chain footprint includes all sources of emissions: Scope 1, Scope 2 ... 3 Direct emissions from on-site energy, process emissions, AstraZeneca road ..... Residual Mix Emissions Rates; rest of world – location-based factors used. ..... Mass Intensity (PMI) is a smart measure of the total.
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Attempts to Green the Synthesis of Liquid Crystals
All the Starbon-Pd had a high activity in ethanol/water solvent system. In CPME/ water solvent .... 126.96.36.199 Process Mass Intensity (PMI) . .... 2.2.1 Catalyst Preparation of Starbon-Pd .. ..... Figure 3.21 Reaction rate of microwave irradiation . .... Design synthetic methods to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in.
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james carl fennewald - University of California, Santa Barbara
To the organic faculty members, thanks for all discussions about my research, and .... Surfactant technologies; applied custom design and synthesis ..... Figure 1 . Lipshutz Group surfactants for enabling green chemistry . ..... renewable materials. ... and fine chemical companies have used process mass intensity ( PMI) as a.
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6. Green chemistry: Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of ionic liquids
Another metric is Process Mass Intensity (PMI)  that is defined as the ratio between ... in the synthesis of 1 kg of product (e.g. reagents, solvents, water, etc) not only the ... contribution is much lower than all the materials used in the process. The ... they include solvents, catalysts, reaction media and any other substance.
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Development of a Biocatalytic Process as an Alternative to the
the corresponding (S)-alcohol, a key intermediate in the synthesis of montelukast ..... mass intensity (PMI, defined as the ratio of the quantity of all material input ...
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